Detailed Guide on Diabetes Mellitus: You Need to Know

Diabetes Mellitus refers to a disease in which the glucose (sugar) level becomes high as the blood does not produce enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone in the human body that controls the glucose level and amount in the blood.
When the sugar level in blood increases compared to the insulin, it leads to Diabetes Mellitus. This disease has various classifications and types with different pathophysiology, symptoms, management, and more. If not controlled and managed on time, it can cause complications such as organ damage.

Difference Between Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes

There is no difference between diabetes and diabetes mellitus as both are the same. Doctors use the phrase Diabetes Mellitus to differentiate it from diabetes insipidus, which causes a urination increase instead of a blood sugar increase.

Diabetes Mellitus Types

Diabetes causes high blood sugar levels due to one cause or another. Based on the causes and their effects, this disease is further divided into some types. They are as follows!

• Type 1 Diabetes

In type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system attacks the cells that make insulin. Due to this, more than 90% of these cells are irreparably damaged. However, the pancreas generates very little or no insulin.
This disorder is known as insulin-dependent diabetes. Only 5 to 10% of all people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. Although it can happen later in life, type 1 diabetes usually strikes before age 30.

• Type 2 Diabetes

Non-insulin-dependent diabetes, also known as type 2 diabetes, refers to a disorder in which the pancreas continues to generate insulin, sometimes more than the standard amounts.
In response to this, the body develops resistance resulting in insulin deficiency. As a result, the body does not produce the amount of insulin essential for your body.

• Gestational Diabetes

In gestational diabetes, a pregnant woman develops high sugar levels in her body without any previous history of diabetes. Managing gestational diabetes is essential to ensure a healthy pregnancy and healthy birth of a baby.

Most Common Diabetes Mellitus Symptoms

Diabetes has become common among people over the age of 20, which can cause various health issues and complications. People with diabetes suffer from multiple symptoms; however, the most common and notable ones are as follows!
• Increase in urination
• Increase in thirst
• Weight loss
• Nerves damage
• Vision loss
• Dry skin
• Extreme hunger
• Body tiredness
• Fatigue
• Slow healing of sores and injuries

What are the risk factors for Diabetes Mellitus?

Diabetes happens when is an extra level of sugar in your bloodstream. However, various risk factors range according to the type of diabetes you have developed. Some of them are as follows!
• Family history of diabetes
• Presence of auto antibiotics
• Stress
• Exposure to viruses
• Infections or surgery
• Obesity
• High blood pressure
• Low cholesterol
• Lack of physical activities
• Smoking

How to Diagnose Diabetes Mellitus?

Your blood glucose level is yet checked to diagnose diabetes. To prevent this, three diabetes tests are as follows!

Fasting Plasma Glucose Test

This test is done after eight hours fast, usually in the morning. For this test, you cannot eat or drink anything but sips of water.

Random Plasma Glucose Test

There is no need to fast for this test; however, it can be done anytime.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

This is a detailed test of your blood sugar level over the past two or three months. This test requires no fasting.

A1c Test

It would help if you fasted overnight fasting for this test in which your blood glucose level is measured hourly.

Diabetes Mellitus Treatment & Precaution

Diabetes produces adverse effects on your overall health and body. It can never cause damage if not checked and managed correctly. There is no proper treatment for this disease; however, with a few healthy habits and precautions, you can control your blood sugar level. You can manage diabetes well through the following practices while decreasing the risk factors!
• Do regular exercise and morning walk.
• Stop smoking immediately
• Have a healthy and balanced diet including fruits, vegetables, grains, and healthy fats
• Avoid food that has excessive sugar
• Maintain a healthy weight
• Check your blood sugar level frequently
• Avoid stressful situations
• Take insulin and medication
• Arrange meetings with your healthcare providers frequently
Diabetes can be treated and controlled more effectively if it is identified earlier. Your chances of living a prolonged, healthy life increase with how well you can maintain your blood sugar level.



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